Ocean acidification is one of the major effects of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to greenhouse gas emissions. Since the Monaco Declaration on ocean acidification signed by 150 scientists from 26 countries in 2008, Prince Albert II of Monaco and his Foundation are very much involved in this key issue which is to be discussed at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 21, Paris 2015).

Annual “Economy and Acidification” workshops are jointly organised by the Monaco Scientific Centre and the IAEA marine laboratory with the support of the Prince Albert II Foundation. In 2010, the first workshop confirmed the potential socio-economic threats of the effects of ocean acidification, but also highlighted the difficulties in quantifying them. In 2012, the second workshop focused on one of the pillars of the marine economy: fisheries and aquaculture within the context of a regional approach.

The Ocean Acidification International Reference User Group (OA-iRUG), which is supported by the Prince Albert II Foundation, held its annual meeting in Monaco in early December 2013. It brought together players from civil society and scientists with the aim of making the main conclusions of research work accessible to all the parties concerned.

p>The Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation was the instigator of the AMAO (Association Monégasque pour l’Acidification des Océans). 

Its actual establishment was publicly declared by HSH the Sovereign Prince during his speech on 3rd December 2013 on the occasion of the Ocean Acidification International Reference User Group meeting.

The goals of the AMAO are to communicate on, promote and facilitate international actions on ocean acidification and other global stress factors affecting the marine environment. 

Consequently, the AMAO is committed to homogenise communication between the various institutions working in Monaco to combat ocean acidification: the Prince Albert II Foundation and the Government of Monaco, the IAEA environmental laboratories, the Monaco Scientific Centre and the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco.

Moreover it is made up of representatives of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the French National Research Centre (CNRS). 

In order to provide funding for projects aimed at combating ocean acidification, the AMAO is able to collect funds from private funding bodies.

The Oceanographic Institute

The Oceanographic Institute, founded in 1906 by Prince Albert I of Monaco, supports the implementation of sustainable ocean management able to reconcile biodiversity protection with economic activities that are more respectful of the marine ecosystems.

Supported by the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco and the Maison des Océans in Paris, it acts as an intermediary between the scientific community, the players involved in the maritime economy, political leaders and the general public.

Following on from the Monaco Declaration in 2009, the Oceanographic Museum regularly hosts high-level meetings focused on ocean acidification.

To find out more about all its activities:

The Monaco Scientific Centre (CSM)

The Monaco Scientific Centre (CSM) is an independent public research institution dependent on the Principality of Monaco.  Created in 1960 by Prince Rainier III, today it consists of three research departments: The marine biology department, set up in 1990, the polar biology department, set up in 2012 and the medical biology department, set up in 2013.

The marine biology department is specialised in the study of coral reefs, from the gene to human society, through to the ecosystem. Its researchers were among the first to take an interest in the effects of ocean acidification on corals.

Since 2010 it has jointly organised with the IAEA the “Ocean Acidification Economy” Workshop.

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The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the global centre for cooperation in the nuclear sector. It was established in 1957 under the aegis of the United Nations. The aim of the IAEA is to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technology.

Nuclear and isotope techniques are valuable tools for ocean acidification research and the IAEA Environmental Laboratories in Monaco coordinate activities focused on this global environmental issue. As part of its “Peaceful Uses Initiative” in 2012 the IAEA launched the “Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre “(OA-ICC) whose goal is to promote and facilitate a series of international activities on ocean acidification. For further information, log onto

Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation

In June 2006, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco decided to establish his Foundation to address our planet's alarming environmental situation. The Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation is dedicated to the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development on a global scale.  The Foundation supports projects in three main geographical zones and focuses its efforts focus on three main areas : To limit the effect of climate change and promote renewable energies, to safeguard biodiversity, and to protect water resources and combat desertification.